Materials characterization plays a vital role in order to understand the structure and properties relationship of the materials with respect to their synthesis procedures. It shows the way to develop new materials with better efficiencies. Various characterization techniques have been developed to find out the unknown composition /structure of the materials in different levels, i.e. subatomic, atomic, and microscopic. The present talk will focus on the fundamental concepts behind various materials characterization techniques and their importance in materials science and technologies.